Boost transcription accuracy of class lectures with custom language models for Amazon Transcribe

Numerous universities like transcribing their taped class lectures and later on developing captions out of these transcriptions. Amazon Transcribe is a fully-managed automated speech acknowledgment service (ASR) that makes it simple to include speech-to-text abilities to voice-enabled applications. Transcribe helps in increasing availability and enhancing content engagement and finding out outcomes by getting in touch with both auditory and visual students.
When transcribing content that is more domain-specific or specific such as biology, Amazon Transcribe offers customized language models (CLM). One common issue we see is the trouble in accurately transcribing certain topics. In this post, we reveal how you can harness easily offered material to train a CLM in Amazon Transcribe and boost the transcription precision on clinical subjects like biology.
This blogs main purpose is to reveal how information can be easily downloaded from Wikipedia to produce a training corpus for CLM.
In this blog, we will describe a few publicly readily available biology audio lectures from MIT. Amazon Transcribe may acknowledge the following sophisticated scientific terms:
” Prokaryotic cells” as “Pro carry ah tick cells”
” Endoplasmic reticulum” as “Endo Plas Mick Ridiculous um”
” Vacuoles” as “Vac u ALS”
” Flagella” as “Flu Gela”
These results shouldnt be interpreted as a full representation of the Amazon Transcribe service efficiency– its simply one circumstances for a really particular example.
Solution summary
With the CLM function in Amazon Transcribe, you can construct your own custom design for your class course material and improve the transcription accuracy of your class lectures.
The CLM function in Transcribe carries 3 stages for developing a custom design:

Prepare training information
Train a CLM design
Transcribe an audio file using the CLM model and evaluate the outcomes

Prepare training information
The Amazon Transcribe CLM function needs training information that is particular to that specific domain. In our example, we require training information specific to biology. We can further enhance the CLMs accuracy using ground truth records as tuning information.
Written in Python, this code pulls various biology-related articles from Wikipedia, and requires you to supply a couple of key terms connected to the domain of interest. It then fetches Wikipedia short articles on those crucial title terms if they exist, and disregards those posts if the terms do not exist. Our training information is prepared. In this example, the code upon conclusion produces 137 different text files. You can publish these text files to a folder in an Amazon Simple Storage Service ( Amazon S3) container.

! pip3 set up beautifulsoup4

! pip3 install nltk

Standard Amazon Transcribe WER.
Amazon Transcribe CLM WER.
Requirement Amazon Transcribe Accuracy.
Amazon Transcribe CLM Accuracy.
# Words.
Words Improved by CLM.

Lecture 4.

Outside the nucleus, the ribosomes and the rest of the organelles float around in cytoplasm, which is the jelly like compound. Ribosomes may roam freely within the cytoplasm or connect to the end a plasma vital, Um, in some cases abbreviated as E. R.
Outside the nucleus, the ribosomes and the rest of the organelles drift around in cytoplasm, which is the jelly like compound. Ribosomes might wander easily within the cytoplasm or connect to the endoplasmic reticulum, sometimes abbreviated as E. R.

Lecture 3.

Bit 1– Standard Amazon Transcribe.
Snippet 1– Amazon Transcribe with CLM.

Choose Train design.
For Name, enter a name for your model.
For Language, choose the language of your model (for this post, we select English, United States).
For Base design, if your audio files have a sample rate higher than 16 kHz, choose Wide band.
For Training data, enter the S3 folder course for your training data.
Create an AWS Identity and Access Management ( IAM) function if you do not have an existing function with the needed permissions.
Select Train model.

Bit 1– Ground Truth.

Another distinct feature in some cells is flagella. Some germs have flagella. A flagellum is like a little tail that can assist a cell relocation or move itself.

About the Author.
Raju Penmatcha is a Senior AI/ML Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS. He works with education, government, and not-for-profit clients on device knowing and synthetic intelligence-related jobs, assisting them build services utilizing AWS. Outside of work, he likes seeing movies and exploring brand-new locations.

Outside the nucleus, the ribosomes and the rest of the organelles float around in cytoplasm, which is the jelly like compound. Ribosomes might roam easily within the cytoplasm or attach to the endoplasmic reticulum sometimes abbreviated as ER.

To demonstrate this further, we downloaded numerous openly offered biology audio lectures from MIT, specifically lectures 1, 3, and 4. Arise from this exercise are reported in the following table using word mistake rate (WER) as a metric. WER is a standard metric used to measure transcription accuracy, where precision = (1.0– WER). In this test, we used the asr-evaluation Python module for WER calculations.

print(” Was able to download text for “+ str( count) +” out of “+ str( len( keywords_list))+” keywords”).

Snippet 1– Standard Amazon Transcribe.
Bit 1– Amazon Transcribe with CLM.

# Write output to a folder.
def output_to_file( data, keyword):.
file_location=”./”+ keyword+”. txt”.
with open( file_location, “w”, encoding=” utf-8″) as f:.
f.write( information).

Train a Custom Language Model.
We utilize this training information to train our CLM in Amazon Transcribe. To do so, we can use the AWS Management Console, the AWS Command Line Interface ( AWS CLI), or the AWS SDK. The method displayed in this post utilizes the console.

Your model needs to be prepared after a couple of hours. Make sure that your training data remains in UTF-8 format. To learn more, see Improving domain-specific transcription accuracy with custom-made language models.
When your model is ready, you can use it to produce transcriptions.
Transcribe and examine the results.
In this section, we compare the transcription output from basic Amazon Transcribe with the CLM output.
We took the basic biology audio file as input to demonstrate how CLM improves the results. The words highlighted in red program mistakes in transcription, and the ones highlighted in green show how those errors are repaired by the CLM.

import urllib.request.
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup.

Snippet 2– Ground Truth.

# Helper approach to get html text from wikipedia.
def extract_html( keyword):.
fp = urllib.request.urlopen(””+ keyword).
html = decipher(” utf8″).
return html.
print(” Page for “+ keyword+” does not exist”).
return None.

When transcribing material that is more domain-specific or customized such as biology, Amazon Transcribe offers custom language models (CLM). In this post, we show how you can harness easily offered material to train a CLM in Amazon Transcribe and boost the transcription precision on scientific topics like biology. The Amazon Transcribe CLM feature requires training data that is specific to that particular domain. We utilize this training data to train our CLM in Amazon Transcribe. As you can see, although Amazon Transcribes generic engine performed decently in transcribing the sample audio from the biology domain, the CLM we constructed using training data carried out even better!

import nltk punkt).

print(” Size of keyword list =”, len( keywords_list)).

As appears from the outcomes, transcription precision enhanced through using CLM. The following are some of the transcription mistakes that the CLM fixed:.
” file a Chinese” remedied to “Phylogenies”.
” Metas Oona” fixed to “Metazoa”.
” File Um” fixed to “Phylum”.
” Endo prepares specific” remedied to “Endoplasmic reticulum”.
These WERs arent representative of general Amazon Transcribe performance. The number of words precisely transcribed by CLM is pretty significant! As you can see, although Amazon Transcribes generic engine carried out decently in transcribing the sample audio from the biology domain, the CLM we built using training information carried out even much better!
In this post, we demonstrated how arise from the customized language function of Amazon Transcribe can enhance transcription accuracy on tough specialized audio subjects, such as biology lectures. More improvements are possible by using course products such as books and relevant articles as additional training information. You can utilize some of the ground fact audio transcripts as tuning data.
You can likewise utilize the custom-made vocabulary feature in Amazon Transcribe in conjunction with CLM to offer pronunciations tips for particularly troublesome words. To learn more, see Custom vocabularies.
As you begin developing a CLM for your usage case, ensure that you train it on proper information for that particular subject. You can utilize the code offered in this post to source domain-specific tuning or training information from public sites such as Wikipedia. Attempt it out yourself and let us know how you perform in the comments!

# Download data from wikipedia to regional text files.
count = 0.
for keyword in keywords_list:.
keyword = keyword.replace(” “,” _”).
html = extract_html( keyword).
if html:.
count += 1.
information=”n”. sign up with( get_data( html)).
output_to_file( information, keyword).

# Helper technique to extract data from html text.
def get_data( html):.
extracted_data = [] soup = BeautifulSoup( html, html.parser).
for data in soup.find _ all( p):.
res = tokenize.sent _ tokenize( data.text).
for txt in res:.
txt2 = re.sub(” [( [] *? []], “”, txt).
txt2 = txt2.strip().
if len( txt2)>> 0:.
extracted_data. append( txt2).
return extracted_data.

On the Amazon Transcribe console, choose Custom language design in the navigation pane.

Another unique function in some cells is flat Gela. Some germs have fled. Gela, a flagellum, is like a little tail that can help us sell, move or move itself.
Another special feature in some cells is flagella. Some germs have flagella. A flagellum is like a little tail that can assist a cell move or propel itself.

# Create a list of essential terms associated with biology.
keywords_list = [” Abdominal cavity”, “Absorption”, “Acclimation”,.
” Achondroplasia”, “Acid”, “Behaviour”, “ACTH”,.
” Adrenocorticotropic”, “Hormone”, “Aerobic”,.
” Amoeba”, “Amoeboid”, “Anabolism”, “Anabolic”,.
” Anaerobic”, “Anagen”, “Anastomosis”, “Anatomy”,.
” Anterior”, “Articulate”, “Blastodisc”,.
” Blastoderm”, “Binocular”, “Bolus”, “Boli”,.
” Catabolism”, “Catabolic”, “Caudal”, “Choana”,.
” Coelom”, “Columnar”, “Epithelium”, “Conical”,.
” Corium”, “Cranial”, “Dimorphism”, “Distal”,.
” Dorsal”, “Ectoderm”, “Electrolyte”,.
” Endocardium”, “Endoderm”, “Entoderm”,.
” Gamete”, “Germ”, “Gonads”, “Gonadotropins”,.
” Heterophile”, “Homeothermic”, “Hyperthermia”,.
” Hypothermia”, “Ingest”, “Infection”, “Infestation”,.
” Lateral”, “Longitudinal”, “Lunar”, “Median”,.
” Meiosis”, “Chromosome”, “Metabolism”, “Living organism”,.
” Mitosis”, “Mesoderm”, “Myocardium”, “Neo”,.
” Ovum”, “Paleo”, “Respiration”, “Papilla”,.
” Papillae”, “Exocrine gland”, “Peri”,.
” Pericardial”, “Heart”, “Peritoneal”,.
” Intestine”, “Abdomen”, “PH”, “Phagocyte”,.
” White blood cell”, “Foreign body”, “Bacteria”,.
” Physiology”, “Organism”, “Plantar”, “Pleural”,.
” Lung”, “Poikilothermic”, “Animal”, “Body”,.
” Polymorphonuclear”, “Nucleus”, “Posterior”,.
” Proximal”, “Pulmonary”, “Veins”, “Purkinje fibres”,.
” Muscle”, “Fibres”, “Sagittal”, “Tissue”, “Sebaceous”,.
” Serous”, “Membrane”, “Squamous”, “Syncytium”,.
” Protoplasm”, “Telogen”, “Thoracic”, “Cavity”,.
” Body cavity”, “Diaphragm”, “Transverse”, “Ventral”,.
” Virulent”, “Disease”, “Biology”, “Human cell”,.
” Animal cell”, “Cell structure”, “Zoology”, “DNA”,.
” Plant cell”, “Biophysics”, “Cell and molecular biology”,.
” Computational biology”, “Ecology”, “Evolution”,.
” Environmental biology”, “Forensic biology”,.
” Genetics”, “Marine biology”, “Microbiology”,.
” Biosciences”, “Natural science”, “Neurobiology”]
# Purge any duplicates from list.
keywords_list = list( set( keywords_list)).

from nltk import tokenize.
import re.

Lecture 1.

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